Stimulation of critically ill patients: Relationship to sedation

Mary Jo Grap, Cindy L. Munro, Paul A. Wetzel, Jessica M. Ketchum, James S. Ketchum, William L. Anderson, Al M. Best, V. Anne Hamilton, Nyimas Y. Arief, Ruth Burk, Tenesha Bottoms, Curtis N. Sessler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives To describe the number and type of stimulation events and the relationship of stimulation to sedation level in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Methods A 4-hour direct observation was conducted in 103 patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Stimulation events and sedation level before and after the stimulation were documented. Eight categories of stimulation events were developed in a previous pilot study of 36 patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Sedation was measured continuously by using a processed electroencephalographic score (patient state index [PSI]) and intermittently by using the Richmond Agitation- Sedation Scale. Results Patients were mostly alert/mildly sedated (54.4%) at study enrollment. During the 349 hours of observation, 58.8% of the time included stimulation events. General auditory types of stimulation were most common (41.2% of observed time), followed by respiratory management and tactile family stimulation. For all events, auditorytalking, tactile-general, tactile-noxious, and tactile-highly noxious stimuli were associated with higher PSIs (all P < .001) after stimulation; other stimuli were not. Level of consciousness influenced response to stimuli, with almost all types of stimuli increasing PSI for patients more deeply sedated (PSI < 60) just before the stimuli. However, the effect of stimulation on PSI for more alert patients (PSI > 60) was small and variable. Discussion Critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation are subjected to various forms of auditory and tactile stimulation frequently throughout the day. All types of stimuli increased arousal in patients who were more deeply sedated. The effect of stimulation in patients who were not deeply sedated was minimal and inconsistent. (American Journal of Critical Care. 2016;25:e48-e55).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e48-e55
JournalAmerican Journal of Critical Care
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care


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