Through the looking glass: Basics and principles of reflectance confocal microscopy

Syril Keena T. Que, Naiara Fraga-Braghiroli, Jane M. Grant-Kels, Harold S. Rabinovitz, Margaret Oliviero, Alon Scope

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) offers high-resolution, noninvasive skin imaging and can help avoid obtaining unnecessary biopsy specimens. It can also increase efficiency in the surgical setting by helping to delineate tumor margins. Diagnostic criteria and several RCM algorithms have been published for the differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasms. We provide an overview of the basic principles of RCM, characteristic RCM features of normal skin and cutaneous neoplasms, and the limitations and future directions of RCM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-284
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • basal cell carcinoma
  • cutaneous oncology
  • melanoma
  • noninvasive imaging
  • reflectance confocal microscopy
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • tumors/neoplasm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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