Trends in Heart Failure Hospitalizations in the US from 2008 to 2018

Katherine A.A. Clark, Samuel W. Reinhardt, Fouad Chouairi, P. Elliott Miller, Bradley Kay, Michael Fuery, Avirup Guha, Tariq Ahmad, Nihar R. Desai

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24 Scopus citations


Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major driver of health care costs in the United States and is increasing in prevalence. There is a paucity of contemporary data examining trends among hospitalizations for HF that specifically compare HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF or HFpEF, respectively). Methods and Results: Using the National Inpatient Sample, we identified 11,692,995 hospitalizations due to HF. Hospitalizations increased from 1,060,540 in 2008 to 1,270,360 in 2018. Over time, the median age of patients hospitalized because of HF decreased from 76.0 to 73.0 years (P < 0.001). There were increases in the proportions of Black patients (18.4% in 2008 to 21.2% in 2018) and of Hispanic patients (7.1% in 2008 to 9.0% in 2018; P < 0.001, all). Over the study period, we saw an increase in comorbid diabetes, sleep apnea and obesity (P < 0.001, all) in the entire cohort with HF as well as in the HFrEF and HFpEF subgroups. Persons admitted because of HFpEF were more likely to be white and older compared to admissions because of HFrEF and also had lower costs. Inpatient mortality decreased from 2008 to 2018 for overall HF (3.3% to 2.6%) and HFpEF (2.4% to 2.1%; P < 0.001, all) but was stable for HFrEF (2.8%, both years). Hospital costs, adjusted for inflation, decreased in all 3 groups across the study period, whereas length of stay was relatively stable over time for all groups. Conclusions: The volume of patients hospitalized due to HF has increased over time and across subgroups of ejection fraction. The demographics of HF, HFrEF and HFpEF have become more diverse over time, and hospital inpatient costs have decreased, regardless of HF type. Inpatient mortality rates improved for overall HF and HFpEF admissions but remained stable for HFrEF admissions.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-180
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cardiac Failure
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction
  • Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
  • Heart failure
  • outcomes


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