Two modes of nanoleakage expression in single-step adhesives

F. R. Tay, D. H. Pashley, M. Yoshiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

529 Scopus citations


Self-etch adhesives that etch, prime, and bond simultaneously should not exhibit incomplete resin infiltration within hybrid layers. We hypothesized that nanoleakage patterns in these systems are artifacts caused by mineral dissolution in mildly acidic silver nitrate. Resin-dentin interfaces bonded with four single-step, self-etch adhesives were examined for nanoleakage by conventional (pH 4.2) and basic ammoniacal (pH 9.5) silver nitrate and prepared for transmission electron microscopy. All adhesives exhibited a reticular mode of nanoleakage within hybrid layers when conventional silver nitrate was used. With ammoniacal silver nitrate, an additional spotted pattern of nanoleakage was observed within adhesive and hybrid layers. The reticular mode of nanoleakage in self-etch adhesives probably represents sites of incomplete water removal that leads to regional suboptimal polymerization. The spotted pattern identified with the use of ammoniacal silver nitrate probably represents potentially permeable regions in the adhesive and hybrid layers that result from the interaction of the basic diamine silver ions with acidic/hydrophilic resin components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)472-476
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2002


  • Ammoniacal silver nitrate
  • Conventional silver nitrate
  • Permeability
  • Self-etch
  • Single-step adhesives
  • Water tree

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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