Ultrastructural study of a glass ionomer-based, all-in-one adhesive

Franklin R. Tay, Hidehiko Sano, Junji Tagami, Masanori Hashimoto, Keith M. Moulding, Cynthia Yiu, David H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Objective: Reactmer Bond (Shofu Inc., Kyoto, Japan) is a glass ionomer (GI) based, tri-curable, all-in-one, filled adhesive. Both fluoroaluminosilicate glass (FASG) and fully pre-reacted glass (F-PRG) are used as fillers. This study examined the ultrastructure and elemental composition of resin-dentine interfaces that were treated with this adhesive. Methods: Dentine disks prepared from human third molars were abraded with either 600- or 60-grit SiC paper to create smear layers of different thickness. They were bonded using Reactmer Bond. Cryo-fractured dentine surfaces devoid of smear layers were also bonded by chemical-activation and GI reaction without additional light-activation, or allowing the GI reaction to proceed for l min before the adhesive was applied and light-activated. Undemineralised and demineralised sections were processed for TEM examination and STEM/EDX analysis. Results: Resin-dentine interface from specimens with smear layers consisted of a mineral-dense surface layer that resided on top of a partially demineralised dentine. The partially demineralised zone was considerably thicker in the 600-grit than the 60-grit specimens. In smear layer-free specimens that were cured by chemical-activation/GI modes only, the surface layer concurred with the partially demineralised zone, and appeared as an electron-dense layer over the undemineralised intact dentine. Smear layer-free specimens that were cured by the light-activation of the partially neutralised adhesive contained incomplete amorphous surface layers only. Apart from colloidal silica, FASG fillers were the predominant filler type within the resin matrices. Peripheral hydrogel layers that contained electron-dense 'seeds' were found around the FASG fillers. F-PRG fillers were only sparsely observed. In specimens that were laboratory demineralised with formic acid, phase separation of the unstained resin matrices into electron-dense and electron-lucent domains occurred. Artefactual dendritic deposits were found within the electron-dense domains. Conclusions: The presence of a surface interaction layer on top of a partially demineralised zone along the resin-dentine interface suggests that either a GI-type reaction or precipitation of insoluble carboxylate salts around remnant apatite crystallites may occur when this single-step adhesive interacts with dentine. Appearance of artefactual dendritic deposits suggests that continuous ion movement is possible within the hydrophilic portion of the resin matrix in this fluoride-releasing adhesive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-498
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dentistry
Issue number7
StatePublished - Sep 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • All-in-one adhesive
  • Dentine
  • F-PRG filler
  • FASG filler
  • Glass ionomer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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