Unevenness of the Apical Constriction in Human Maxillary Central Incisors

David G. Olson, Steven Roberts, Anthony P. Joyce, D. Edward Collins, James C. McPherson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This study examined the incisoapical extent of the apical constriction in 45 human maxillary central incisors. The null hypothesis was that the apical constriction is a flat ring. Our working hypothesis was that the constriction is actually uneven or "skewed" as it traces a path around the circumference of the canal. Teeth were split and imaged with 25× magnification, and the most apical and coronal limits of the apical constriction were identified and measured. Analysis of the data indicates that a majority (>70%) of maxillary central incisors exhibit an unevenness or "skew" of the apical constriction of greater than 100 μm in the incisoapical dimension, with a maximum measured skew of 385 μm. On the basis of the results of this study, a statistically significant (P < .05) variation in the longitudinal position of the apical constriction around its circumference was confirmed in maxillary central incisors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-159
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of endodontics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2008


  • Apical constriction
  • apical foramen
  • root apex
  • skew
  • uneven

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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